As previously reported, the new Massachusetts law governing non-competition agreements takes effect on Monday, October 1. A comprehensive summary of the law is here. The most significant takeaways are the following:
- The law applies to post-employment noncompetes entered into on or after October 1, 2018 by Massachusetts workers and residents.
- The law does not apply to other kinds of restrictions, including non-solicitation agreements. It also does not apply to noncompete restrictions that apply during employment.
- Noncompetes cannot be imposed on non-exempt (overtime eligible) employees.
- Noncompetes will not be enforceable where the employee is laid off or terminated without cause.
- Noncompetes cannot extend beyond one year, unless the employee has taken the employer’s information or violated his or her fiduciary duty, in which case the restriction can extend to two years after termination.
- Noncompetes must be presented to new employees with the formal offer or 10 business days before the start date, whichever is earlier.
- The noncompete must be signed by both parties and must recite that the employee is advised to consult a lawyer.
- The noncompete must contain a “garden leave” clause or provide for “other mutually-agreed upon consideration.” “Garden leave” is defined as payment during the restricted period of 50% of the employee’s highest recent salary. “Other mutually-agreed upon consideration” is not defined in the law. We await clarification (from the legislature or, ultimately, court decisions) as to what will suffice under that prong of the law.
- A provision choosing another state’s law will not overcome application of the law for MA workers and residents.
- Separation agreements containing a noncompete are not subject to the new law’s requirements, except that the agreement must recite that the employee has seven business days after signing to rescind acceptance.
These are just the salient features. The complete text of the law is below. The law raises numerous questions affecting the drafting and imposition of noncompetes that will be answered only by the legislature (through amendment) or courts (through decisions interpreting the law). This blog will follow new developments as they occur.
SECTION 21. Chapter 149 of the General Laws, as appearing in the 2014 Official Edition, is hereby amended by inserting after section 24K the following section:-
Section 24L. (a) As used in this section, the following words shall have the following meanings:-
“Business entity”, any person or group of persons performing or engaging in any activity, enterprise, profession or occupation for gain, benefit, advantage or livelihood, whether for profit or not for profit, including but not limited to corporations, limited liability companies, limited partnerships or limited liability partnerships.
“Employee”, an individual who is considered an employee under section 148B of this chapter; provided, however, that the term “employee”, as used in this chapter, shall also include independent contractors under section 148B.
“Forfeiture agreement”, an agreement that imposes adverse financial consequences on a former employee as a result of the termination of an employment relationship, regardless of whether the employee engages in competitive activities following cessation of the employment relationship. Forfeiture agreements do not include forfeiture for competition agreements.
“Forfeiture for competition agreement”, an agreement that by its terms or through the manner in which it is enforced imposes adverse financial consequences on a former employee as a result of the termination of an employment relationship if the employee engages in competitive activities.
“Garden leave clause”, a provision within a noncompetition agreement by which an employer agrees to pay the employee during the restricted period, provided that such provision shall become effective upon termination of employment unless the restriction upon post-employment activities are waived by the employer or ineffective under subsection (c) (iii).
“Noncompetition agreement”, an agreement between an employer and an employee, or otherwise arising out of an existing or anticipated employment relationship, under which the employee or expected employee agrees that he or she will not engage in certain specified activities competitive with his or her employer after the employment relationship has ended. Noncompetition agreements include forfeiture for competition agreements, but do not include: (i) covenants not to solicit or hire employees of the employer; (ii) covenants not to solicit or transact business with customers, clients, or vendors of the employer; (iii) noncompetition agreements made in connection with the sale of a business entity or substantially all of the operating assets of a business entity or partnership, or otherwise disposing of the ownership interest of a business entity or partnership, or division or subsidiary thereof, when the party restricted by the noncompetition agreement is a significant owner of, or member or partner in, the business entity who will receive significant consideration or benefit from the sale or disposal; (iv) noncompetition agreements outside of an employment relationship; (v) forfeiture agreements; (vi) nondisclosure or confidentiality agreements; (vii) invention assignment agreements; (viii) garden leave clauses; (ix) noncompetition agreements made in connection with the cessation of or separation from employment if the employee is expressly given seven business days to rescind acceptance; or (x) agreements by which an employee agrees to not reapply for employment to the same employer after termination of the employee.
“Restricted period”, the period of time after the date of cessation of employment during which an employee is restricted by a noncompetition agreement from engaging in activities competitive with his or her employer.
(b) To be valid and enforceable, a noncompetition agreement must meet the minimum requirements of paragraphs (i) through (viii).
(i) If the agreement is entered into in connection with the commencement of employment, it must be in writing and signed by both the employer and employee and expressly state that the employee has the right to consult with counsel prior to signing. The agreement must be provided to the employee by the earlier of a formal offer of employment or 10 business days before the commencement of the employee’s employment.
(ii) If the agreement is entered into after commencement of employment but not in connection with the separation from employment, it must be supported by fair and reasonable consideration independent from the continuation of employment, and notice of the agreement must be provided at least 10 business days before the agreement is to be effective. Moreover, the agreement must be in writing and signed by both the employer and employee and expressly state that the employee has the right to consult with counsel prior to signing.
(iii) The agreement must be no broader than necessary to protect one or more of the following legitimate business interests of the employer: (A) the employer’s trade secrets, as that term is defined in section 1 of chapter 93L; (B) the employer’s confidential information that otherwise would not qualify as a trade secret; or (C) the employer’s goodwill. A noncompetition agreement may be presumed necessary where the legitimate business interest cannot be adequately protected through an alternative restrictive covenant, including but not limited to a non-solicitation agreement or a non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement.
(iv) In no event may the stated restricted period exceed 12 months from the date of cessation of employment, unless the employee has breached his or her fiduciary duty to the employer or the employee has unlawfully taken, physically or electronically, property belonging to the employer, in which case the duration may not exceed 2 years from the date of cessation of employment.
(v) The agreement must be reasonable in geographic reach in relation to the interests protected. A geographic reach that is limited to only the geographic areas in which the employee, during any time within the last 2 years of employment, provided services or had a material presence or influence is presumptively reasonable.
(vi) The agreement must be reasonable in the scope of proscribed activities in relation to the interests protected. A restriction on activities that protects a legitimate business interest and is limited to only the specific types of services provided by the employee at any time during the last 2 years of employment is presumptively reasonable.
(vii) The noncompetition agreement shall be supported by a garden leave clause or other mutually-agreed upon consideration between the employer and the employee, provided that such consideration is specified in the noncompetition agreement. To constitute a garden leave clause within the meaning of this section, the agreement must (i) provide for the payment, consistent with the requirements for the payment of wages under section 148 of chapter 149 of the general laws, on a pro-rata basis during the entirety of the restricted period, of at least 50 percent of the employee’s highest annualized base salary paid by the employer within the 2 years preceding the employee’s termination; and (ii) except in the event of a breach by the employee, not permit an employer to unilaterally discontinue or otherwise fail or refuse to make the payments; provided, however, if the restricted period has been increased beyond 12 months as a result of the employee’s breach of a fiduciary duty to the employer or the employee has unlawfully taken, physically or electronically, property belonging to the employer, the employer shall not be required to provide payments to the employee during the extension of the restricted period.
(viii) The agreement must be consonant with public policy.
(c) A noncompetition agreement shall not be enforceable against the following types of workers: (i) an employee who is classified as nonexempt under the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 201-219; (ii) undergraduate or graduate students that partake in an internship or otherwise enter a short-term employment relationship with an employer, whether paid or unpaid, while enrolled in a full-time or part-time undergraduate or graduate educational institution; (iii) employees that have been terminated without cause or laid off; or (iv) employees age 18 or younger. This section does not render void or unenforceable the remainder of the contract or agreement containing the unenforceable noncompetition agreement, nor does it preclude the imposition of a noncompetition restriction by a court, whether through preliminary or permanent injunctive relief or otherwise, as a remedy for a breach of another agreement or a statutory or common law duty.
(d) A court may, in its discretion, reform or otherwise revise a noncompetition agreement so as to render it valid and enforceable to the extent necessary to protect the applicable legitimate business interests.
(e) No choice of law provision that would have the effect of avoiding the requirements of this section will be enforceable if the employee is, and has been for at least 30 days immediately preceding his or her cessation of employment, a resident of or employed in Massachusetts at the time of his or her termination of employment.
(f) All civil actions relating to employee noncompetition agreements subject to this section shall be brought in the county where the employee resides or, if mutually agreed upon by the employer and employee, in Suffolk county; provided that, in any such action brought in Suffolk county, the superior court or the business litigation session of the superior court shall have exclusive jurisdiction.
SECTION 71. Section 24L of chapter 149 of the General Laws may be referred to as the Massachusetts Noncompetition Agreement Act and shall apply to employee noncompetition agreements entered into on or after October 1, 2018.